Spatio‐temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale: evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring
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|Title:||Spatio‐temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale: evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring
|Author:||González Mariño, Iria
Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio
Alygizakis, Nikiforos A.
Andrés-Costa, María Jesús
Brock, Andreas L.
Burgard, Daniel A.
Christophoridis, Christophoros E.
Voogt, Pim de
Devault, Damien A.
Dias, Mário J.
Lai, Foon Yin
López de Alda, Miren
Löve, Arndís S.C.
McEneff, Gillian L.
Montes Goyanes, Rosa María
Plósz, Benedek G.
Quintana Álvarez, José Benito
Reid, Malcolm J.
Rodil Rodríguez, María del Rosario
Simões, Susana M.
Sremacki, Maja M.
Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.
Thomas, Kevin V.
Tscharke, Ben J.
Nuijs, Alexander L. N. van
|Affiliation:||Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Departamento de Química Analítica, Nutrición e Bromatoloxía
Universidade de Santiago de Compostela. Instituto de Investigación e Análises Alimentarias
|Subject:||Amphetamine | Cocaine | Ecstasy/MDMA | Illicit drugs | Methamphetamine | Wastewater-based epidemiology ||
|Date of Issue:||2019-10-23
|Citation:||González-Mariño et al. Spatio‐temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale: evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring. Addictions 115 (2020) 109-120
|Abstract:||Background and aims Wastewater‐based epidemiology is an additional indicator of drug use that is gaining reliability to complement the current established panel of indicators. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess spatial and temporal trends of population‐normalized mass loads of benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 3,4‐methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in raw wastewater over 7 years (2011–17); (ii) address overall drug use by estimating the average number of combined doses consumed per day in each city; and (iii) compare these with existing prevalence and seizure data. Design Analysis of daily raw wastewater composite samples collected over 1 week per year from 2011 to 2017. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of 143 wastewater treatment plants in 120 cities in 37 countries. Measurements Parent substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA) and the metabolites of cocaine (benzoylecgonine) and of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (11‐nor‐9‐carboxy‐Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol) were measured in wastewater using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Daily mass loads (mg/day) were normalized to catchment population (mg/1000 people/day) and converted to the number of combined doses consumed per day. Spatial differences were assessed world‐wide, and temporal trends were discerned at European level by comparing 2011–13 drug loads versus 2014–17 loads. Findings Benzoylecgonine was the stimulant metabolite detected at higher loads in southern and western Europe, and amphetamine, MDMA and methamphetamine in East and North–Central Europe. In other continents, methamphetamine showed the highest levels in the United States and Australia and benzoylecgonine in South America. During the reporting period, benzoylecgonine loads increased in general across Europe, amphetamine and methamphetamine levels fluctuated and MDMA underwent an intermittent upsurge. Conclusions The analysis of wastewater to quantify drug loads provides near real‐time drug use estimates that globally correspond to prevalence and seizure data|
|Rights:||© 2019 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction RESEARCH REPORT doi:10.1111/add.14767 This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2019 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction RESEARCH REPORT doi:10.1111/add.14767 This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited