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dc.contributor.authorPinal Fernández, Diego
dc.contributor.authorZurrón Ocio, Montserrat
dc.contributor.authorDíaz Fernández, Fernando
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-14T15:21:57Z
dc.date.available2020-04-14T15:21:57Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.citationPinal D, Zurrón M and Díaz F (2014) Effects of load and maintenance duration on the time course of information encoding and retrieval in working memory: from perceptual analysis to post-categorization processes. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8:165
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10347/21379
dc.description.abstractWorking memory (WM) involves three cognitive events: information encoding, maintenance, and retrieval; these are supported by brain activity in a network of frontal, parietal and temporal regions. Manipulation of WM load and duration of the maintenance period can modulate this activity. Although such modulations have been widely studied using the event-related potentials (ERP) technique, a precise description of the time course of brain activity during encoding and retrieval is still required. Here, we used this technique and principal component analysis to assess the time course of brain activity during encoding and retrieval in a delayed match to sample task. We also investigated the effects of memory load and duration of the maintenance period on ERP activity. Brain activity was similar during information encoding and retrieval and comprised six temporal factors, which closely matched the latency and scalp distribution of some ERP components: P1, N1, P2, N2, P300, and a slow wave. Changes in memory load modulated task performance and yielded variations in frontal lobe activation. Moreover, the P300 amplitude was smaller in the high than in the low load condition during encoding and retrieval. Conversely, the slow wave amplitude was higher in the high than in the low load condition during encoding, and the same was true for the N2 amplitude during retrieval. Thus, during encoding, memory load appears to modulate the processing resources for context updating and post-categorization processes, and during retrieval it modulates resources for stimulus classification and context updating. Besides, despite the lack of differences in task performance related to duration of the maintenance period, larger N2 amplitude and stronger activation of the left temporal lobe after long than after short maintenance periods were found during information retrieval. Thus, results regarding the duration of maintenance period were complex, and future work is required to test the time-based decay theory predictions
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was funded by the Spanish Government: Ministerios de Educación (BES 2008-005929) and Economía y Competitividad (PSI2010-22224-C03-03); and by the Galician Government: Consellería de Economía e Industria (10 PXIB 211070 PR), and Consellería de Educación e Ordenación Universitaria (Axudas para a Consolidación e Estruturación de unidades de investigación competitivas do sistema universitario de Galicia. Ref: CN 2012/033)
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherFrontiers Media
dc.relationinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MICINN/Plan Nacional de I+D+i 2008-2011/PSI2010-22224-C03-03/ES/ESTUDIO LONGITUDINAL SOBRE MARCADORES PSICOFISIOLOGICOS EN EL ENVEJECIMIENTO NORMAL, DETERIORO COGNITIVO LIGERO Y ENFERMEDAD DE ALZHEIMER
dc.rightsCopyright © 2014 Pinal, Zurrón and Díaz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.subjectEvent-related potentials
dc.subjectWorking memory
dc.subjectDelayed match-to-sample
dc.subjectEncoding
dc.subjectRetrieval
dc.subjectMemory load
dc.subjectMaintenance duration
dc.subjecteLORETA
dc.titleEffects of load and maintenance duration on the time course of information encoding and retrieval in working memory: from perceptual analysis to post-categorization processes
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.identifier.DOI10.3389/fnhum.2014.00165
dc.relation.publisherversionhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00165
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
dc.identifier.e-issn1662-5161
dc.rights.accessrightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela. Departamento de Psicoloxía Clínica e Psicobioloxía
dc.description.peerreviewedSI


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Copyright © 2014 Pinal, Zurrón and Díaz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as  Copyright © 2014 Pinal, Zurrón and Díaz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms





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