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New Invertebrate Vectors for PST, Spirolides and Okadaic Acid in the North Atlantic
The prevalence of poisoning events due to harmful algal blooms (HABs) has declined during the last two decades through monitoring programs and legislation, implemented mainly for bivalves. However, new toxin vectors and ...
New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco
Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but ...
Oral Toxicity of Okadaic Acid in Mice: Study of Lethality, Organ Damage, Distribution and Effects on Detoxifying Gene Expression
In vivo, after administration by gavage to mice and rats, okadaic acid has been reported to produce lesions in liver, small intestine and forestomach. Because several reports differ in the damage detected in different ...
Evaluation of the impact of mild steaming and heat treatment on the concentration of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2 and dinophysistoxin-3 in mussels
This study explores the effect of laboratory and industrial steaming on mussels with toxin concentrations above and below the legal limit. We used mild conditions for steaming, 100 ˝C for 5 min in industrial processing, ...